"It has remained unclear" and "has been the topic of much speculation," report a team of researchers who aimed to answer just that question.Their results were published online February 21 in the journal is part of Nature Publishing Group.) These lizards and other "parthenogenetic species are genetically isolated," explains Peter Baumann, an associate investigator at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in Kansas City, Mo., and co-author of the study.If the unmarried Herrera completes that program, he'll be released on probation, which requires celibacy unless he weds.Stoker said the probation condition is needed because Herrera told pre-sentence investigators he's had 34 sexual partners.Species as diverse as Komodo dragons and hammerhead sharks do it asexually if necessary, but some species, like these little lizards, don't have a choice."They can't exchange genetic material, and this loss of genetic exchange is a major disadvantage to them in a changing environment," he says.Qualitatively, that result is obvious, but the quantitative level of increased risk is far less obvious and much more sobering.Proponents of using preponderance of evidence in campus Title IX tribunals argue that because colleges and universities don't have the power to incarcerate those found guilty, the lower burden of proof is justified.
colleges and universities — if they want to maintain access to federal funds — must adjudicate accusations of sexual violence using the “preponderance of the evidence” standard: If a defendant is deemed more than 50 percent likely to have committed the accused act, he or she is declared guilty.
The disturbing, nonconsensual trend is called “stealthing” and its rise is documented in a report by the Columbia Journal of Gender and Law.
Lead author Alexandra Brodsky argues that “stealthing,” when a man secretly removes his condom in the middle of sex, is a form of sexual assault and should be treated as such.
"It was his intent from the beginning to take what he wanted from my 14-year-old child — her virginity," the victim's mother told the court. Sanders, an associate professor at the University of Idaho College of Law, said the probation condition might be illegal or unenforceable.
"I would suspect (a judge can't do that)," Sanders said.