The method evolved from the tendency to formalize the archaeological process, especially through the work of LR Binford, DL Clarke, and JC Gardin.
Computer science and mathematics are used to elaborate the means for transforming simple descriptions of archaeological data into cultural, economic, and social reconstructions of earlier societies.
Scientists now have accurate methods (see below ) for dating fossils.
methods rely on characteristic faunal and geological patterns to bracket the period when the fossil existed.
(The terminology is given in the table on the right.) For instance, with reference to the geologic time scale, the Upper Permian (Lopingian) lasted from 270.6 /- 0.7 Ma (Ma = millions of years ago) until somewhere between 250.1 /- 0.4 Ma (oldest known Triassic) and 260.4 /- 0.7 Ma (youngest known Lopingian)—a gap in known, dated fossil assemblages of nearly 10 Ma.It is, however, important not to confuse geochronologic and chronostratigraphic units.In the same way, it is entirely possible to visit an Upper Cretaceous Series deposit—such as the Egyptian mangrove deposit where the Tyrannosaurus fossils were found—but it is naturally impossible to visit the Late Cretaceous Epoch, as that is a period of time.The field includes the study of mathematical correlations between archaeological features and the movements of celestial bodies.Some sites (Stonehenge, New Grange) show a definite interest in simple solar observations.